Versão em Português

Management and Governance of Indigenous Lands in the Rio Negro and Xingu Basins - PGTAs

Socioenviromental Institute (ISA)

Project official website
Total project value
R$ 12,302,481.90
Total support amount
US$ 3,467,961.63



Support the implementation of the Territorial and Environmental Management Plan (known as PGTA) of the Xingu Indigenous Park and the preparation of PGTAs for Yanomami Indigenous Lands (TIs) and the Upper Rio Negro region, with the systematization of knowledge and strengthening of local governance structures and indigenous organizations


Population ofTIs served by the project representing about 60 thousand indigenous people

Territorial scope

Nine indigenous lands (known as TIs) in the Legal Amazon, located in the state of Mato Grosso, Roraima and Amazonas


Project selected under the Public Call for Support for Territorial and Environmental Management in Indigenous Lands


The Territorial and Environmental Management Plan (PGTA) is an instrument of the National Policy for Territorial and Environmental Management of Indigenous Territories (known as PNGATI), of a dynamic nature, designed to express the leadership, autonomy and self-determination of indigenous peoples. The PGTA materializes the planning, agreed by the entire indigenous community of the use of its territory for cultural, environmental and economic purposes.

The institution responsible for the implementation of the supported project, the Instituto Socioambiental (ISA), is a non-profit civil society organization (known as Oscip). Founded in 1994, it works alongside indigenous, quilombola and extractive communities. Headquartered in São Paulo (SP), ISA has subsidiaries in Manaus (AM), São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM),  Boa Vista (RR), Altamira (PA), Canarana (MT), Brasília (DF) and Eldorado (SP).


The project “Management of Indigenous Lands of the Rio Negro and Xingu Basins” supported the implementation of the PGTA of the Xingu Indigenous Park, as well as the preparation of PGTAs of the Yanomami TI and TIs of the Upper Rio Negro region, with the systematization of knowledge and strengthening of local governance structures and indigenous organizations.

The Xingu Indigenous Park, created in 1961 and located in the state of Mato Grosso, is home to 16 indigenous peoples. This was the first indigenous land approved by the Brazilian government, and in the following decades three adjacent Indigenous Lands were demarcated: Batovi, Wawi and Pequizal do Naruvôtu.

The Yanomami TI is located in the states of Roraima and Amazonas, on the border with Venezuela. The Upper Rio Negro, Rio Apapóris, Cué-Cué Marabitanas, Balaio, Middle Rio Negro I, Middle Rio Negro II and Rio Tea TIs are located in the state of Amazonas.


The project is part of the “Sustainable Production” (1) and “Territorial Planning” (3) components of the Amazon Fund Logical Framework.

Its direct effects were defined as follows: 1.1 sustainable forest use and biodiversity activities identified and developed in the Xingu Indigenous Park; 1.3 expanded managerial and technical capacities for sustainable production in the Xingu Indigenous Park; and 3.2 Xingu Indigenous Park with consolidated territorial protection and infrastructure and Yanomami and Upper Negro River region indigenous lands with defined territorial and environmental management.

Indigenous lands are among the least deforested territorial categories in the Amazon. The project "Management of Indigenous Lands of the Negro and Xingu River Basins", by supporting the implementation of the PGTA of the Xingu Indigenous Park and the elaboration of the PGTAs of the Yanomami Indigenous Lands and of the upper Negro River region, contributed directly to the Amazon Fund's overall objective, namely, "reducing deforestation with sustainable development in the Legal Amazon".

Click on the following image to view its objectives tree, that is, how the project's outputs and linked to the expected outcomes and impact.



Date of approval 06.27.2016
Date of the contract 08.19.2016
Date of conclusion 10.28.2022
Disbursement period 42 months (from the date the contract was signed)


date amount
1º disbursements 10.13.2016 R$1,682,929.57
2º disbursements 10.10.2018 R$5,473,302.48
3º disbursements 06.27.2019 R$3,499,068.47
4º disbursements 12.09.2019 R$1,056,699.48
5º disbursements 10.04.2022 -R$26,156.86
Total amount disbursed R$11,685,843.14

Total amount disbursed in relation to the Amazon Fund’s support



The project was structured along two axes. The first supported the implementation of PGTA actions in the Xingu Indigenous Park and the second axis promoted the preparation of PGTAs in TIs in the Upper Rio Negro Region and in the Yanomami TI. The main activities carried out are highlighted below.

1 – Implementation of Actions of the Territorial and Environmental Management Plan of the Xingu Indigenous Park.

Meetings and workshops were held to define priorities and detail strategic topics of the Xingu Indigenous Territory Management Plan¹.

These meetings were attended by approximately 1,600 indigenous people to discuss topics such as forest restoration actions, territory inspection activities and development of economic alternatives, among other important topics for the implementation of the Xingu Indigenous Territory Management Plan. 

Small projects selected through two public calls carried out by ISA and implemented by various associations and indigenous communities were supported. The supported actions promoted: i) cultural integrity, ii) food security, iii) management of strategic resources and iv) economic alternatives. This support encouraged associations and communities of each ethnicity to progressively assume the implementation of the PGTA, contributing to its protagonism and independence in the defense of their rights and interests.

These two public calls, under the initiative called “Support for Community Initiatives (known as AIC)”, supported 35 small projects of eleven indigenous peoples, ranging between R$10,000 and R$50,000 each project. Among other actions, the following were supported: the construction of a nursery for the production of fruit trees; the construction of a flour house for the production of flour and powder for consumption and commercialization; the training of beekeepers and the implementation / expansion of apiaries; the construction and equipping of a house for honey processing; the construction of a house for the production and exhibition of handicrafts; and the raising of chickens for consumption and income generation.

Cultural integrity projects were also supported, through the implementation of diverse actions to recover traditional knowledge, such as: the production of traditional canoes; the recovery of traditional songs; the recovery of the diversity of products from the countryside; the recovery of traditional craftsmanship; basket making, and the tradition of body painting.

Two audiovisual training workshops were held, which resulted in the production of eight films made from records of students who participated in these workshops, highlighting a 42-minute film reporting seven of the projects carried out under these two public calls for “Support for Community Initiatives”².

As part of the project, three new properties were built, totaling 830m2 of area. A building with an auditorium has been allocated to house the Association of the Indigenous Land of Xingu (known as ATIX), in the municipality of Canarana, in the state of Mato Grosso. This association has brought together 16 indigenous peoples since its creation in 1995.

Two sets of auditoriums, offices and kitchens were also built, including the acquisition of furniture and equipment, to serve the Kikatxi pole, in Querência, and the Pavuru pole, in the municipality of Feliz Natal, both in the state of Mato Grosso. These auditoriums and kitchens are used for meetings and courses in the eastern and middle Xingu regions, and the offices for the use of ATIX in the region.

Improvements were made for three properties used by indigenous associations in the area of operation of the project, one in the municipality of Gaucha do Norte, in the Upper Xingu region and the two others in the municipality of Canarana, all in the state of Mato Grosso. In the context of institutional support for ATIX, a 4x4 truck and a light truck were also purchased.

In order to strengthen the infrastructure of the four poles of the Xingu Indigenous Territory, investments were made in the acquisition of seven boats and four outboard engines; along with more than two dozen items of computer equipment, such as desktops, laptops and projectors. Seven digital cameras, microphones, two radios for long-distance communication, as well as electrical power generation equipment were also acquired, including a motor generator, a photovoltaic generator and two stationary batteries.

Among other trainings, a workshop on participatory organizational diagnosis of the ATIX strategic project was held and several project preparation, management and accountability training events were held, with the objective of supporting indigenous associations and communities to prepare and implement the projects supported by the two public calls and to enable them to prepare new community projects and raise new resources for their implementation.

In order to strengthen the indigenous surveillance and territorial monitoring services of the Xingu Indigenous Park, 22 indigenous surveillance expeditions were carried out, as well as field activities for pesticide monitoring. The Xingu Indigenous Park is surrounded by municipalities that concentrate much of the Brazilian soybean production. The use of pesticides exposes indigenous communities, especially those neighboring large soybean producers, to the pesticides used in this crop, which are often sprayed by air in areas near the villages.

2 - Preparation of territorial and environmental management plans for Indigenous Lands in the Upper Rio Negro region and Yanomami Indigenous Land

The preparation of PGTAs and indigenous macro-regional management plans encompass extensive processes of gathering information, conducting courses, inter-institutional meetings, workshops and consultations in communities, working groups and other moments of socialization and debates on territorial and environmental management.

Participatory PGTAs were prepared with local perspectives and macro-regional indigenous management plans, with context, diagnosis and recommendations for territorial, environmental and cultural management, listed below. These plans can be consulted on the Amazon Fund website, in the section dedicated to this project³:

The following PGTAs were implemented by the project with the support of the Amazon Fund: PGTA of the Yanomami Indigenous Land; PGTA of the Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Land; PGTA of the Balaio Indigenous Land; PGTA of the Cué Cué Marabitanas Indigenous Land; PGTA of the Middle Rio Negro I, Middle Rio Negro II and Rio Téa Indigenous Lands; PGTA CAIARNX - Coordination of the Upper Rio Negro and Xié Indigenous Associations; PGTA Nadzoeri - Baniwa and Koripako Nadzoeri Organization; PGTA COIDI - Coordination of the Indigenous Organizations of the District of Iauaretê; PGTA Wasu - Upper and Middle Rio Negro Indigenous Management Plan and  Recommendations for Territorial and Environmental Management of the Rio Apapóris and Entorno Indigenous Land – Rio Traíra Region.

Additional videos and documents (executive reports and governance bulletins), prepared within the scope of the project, are also published on the Amazon Fund website.

¹ The Xingu Indigenous Territory is formed by the Xingu Indigenous Park and three other indigenous lands: Wawi, Batovi and Pequizal do Naruvôtu.
² The audio of this video is partially in Portuguese and partially in the languages of indigenous peoples, with subtitles in Portuguese.

Final Evaluation

Indicators of efficacy and effectiveness

The project activities contributed to the results related to the “Sustainable Production” (1) and “Territorial Planning” component (3) of the Amazon Fund Logical Framework.

Below are the results of some of the indicators agreed to monitor the expected direct effects.

Direct effect 1.1 - Sustainable use of forest and biodiversity activities identified and developed in the Xingu Indigenous Park (known as PIX):

  • of small projects implemented (effectiveness indicator)
    Target: 20  |  Result achieved: 35
  • Revenue generated from economic activities of sustainable use - products benefited (effectiveness indicator)
    Target: bee honey: R$8 thousand/year  |  Result achieved: R$8,953.00 /year

Direct effect 1.3 - Expanded managerial and technical capabilities for sustainable production in the Xingu Indigenous Park:

  • of indigenous communities and associations trained for the preparation and implementation of small projects (effectiveness indicator)
    Target: 10  |  Result achieved: 31
  • of indigenous people trained in PIX in sustainable productive activities effectively using the knowledge acquired (effectiveness indicator)
    Target: 120  |  Result achieved: 161

Direct effect 3.2 - Xingu Indigenous Park with territorial protection and strengthened infrastructure and Yanomami indigenous lands and in the Upper Rio Negro region with defined territorial and environmental management.

  • Extension of the PIX under Community protection and surveillance - km2 (effectiveness indicator)
    Target: 27,974 km²  |  Result achieved: 27,974 km²
  • of workshops and meetings with indigenous leaders for the preparation of the Life Plan, PGTAs and management guidance documents in the Upper Rio Negro Region (effectiveness indicator)
    Target: 25  |  Result achieved: 45
  • Extension of indigenous lands with strengthened environmental and territorial management in the Upper Rio Negro Region and Yanomami TI - km2 (effectiveness indicator)
    Target: 126,428 km²  |  Result achieved: 126,428 km²

The productive activities supported by the project had a strong food security component, that is, they were largely destined for the consumption of the indigenous populations themselves. One of the activities supported, production and marketing of honey bees (Apis mellifera), had the marketing of its production impaired as a result of the COVID pandemic, and this production was directed to domestic consumption. Ti is worth noting that the honey chain has already been structured over several years in the Xingu Indigenous Territory, and the honey produced there is marketed even with organic product certification.

The project achieved all the desired results and even exceeded the targets in some of the agreed indicators.

Institutional and administrative aspects

In the Xingu Indigenous Territory, the main partnership in the development of the project was with the Xingu Indigenous Land Association - ATIX and with the Funai Xingu Regional Coordination – CRXingu.

The following community associations were also involved: Tapawia Indigenous Association - AIT, of the Kawaiwete people; the Kisêdjê Indigenous Association - AIK, of the Kisêdjê people; the Moygu Indigenous Association - AIMCI, of the Ikpeng people; the Tulukai Indigenous Association and Batovi Indigenous Land Association - ATIB, both of the Waurá people; Matipu Indigenous Association - AIMA, of the Matipu people; Kuikuro Indigenous Association of the Upper Xingu - AIKAX and Ahukugi Indigenous Association, of the Kuikuro people; Kuluene Yanumaka Association, of the Kalapalo people and Yawalapiti Awapá Association - AYA, of the Yawalapiti people.

In the Upper Rio Negro region, the project benefited from the existing partnership between the ISA and the Federation of Indigenous Organizations of the Rio Negro (known as Foirn), as well as maintained cooperation with the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio), in addition to formalizing, with the participation of Foirn, a Technical Cooperation Agreement (known as ACT) with the National Indian Foundation (known as FUNAI). This ACT signed by ISA, Foirn and FUNAI established the basis for cooperation between these institutions aiming at the territorial management, sustainability and governance of the indigenous peoples of the Rio Negro over their territories.

In addition, Foirn, ISA, FUNAI and ICMBio created, during the course of the project, the Governance Commission for the preparation of the PGTAs of the Upper and Middle Rio Negro Indigenous Lands

Risks and lessons learned

The costs of implementing the governance structure of the Xingu Indigenous Territory were higher than originally foreseen by the project. This dimension  is fundamental to the success of a PGTA implementation process, requiring that indigenous people have the opportunity to meet, align understandings and access qualified information in order to decide on territory management.

During the execution of the project, it was found that the meetings were larger and more expensive than originally planned, and it was necessary for ISA to seek additional sources to implement this activity.

At the end of the  project's execution, the Covid-19 pandemic dramatically affected the Upper and Middle Rio Negro region, especially in mid-2020 and early 2021. The final edition, layout and printing of the PGTAs of the Rio Negro Indigenous Lands took longer than expected, considering that the professionals who were involved in these actions, as well as local partners, prioritized acting on the emergency agenda to confront Covid-19 and support the indigenous peoples of the Rio Negro. 

Sustainability of results 

The training of indigenous people and their leaders, the operational structuring of their associations and the cultural recovery of their ancestral practices, together, are a legacy of the project that, by their nature, are not exhausted with the completion of their activities.

Regarding the action “Support for Community Initiatives”, which supported 35 small indigenous projects, it is worth noting that this action was associated with training actions for indigenous people in project preparation, management and accountability. The training and experience acquired by the associations and communities with the two calls implemented by the project, allowed a third notice to have already been launched, with a fundraising process with other partners.

The drafting of the Yanomami TI PGTA, where the Yanomami and Ye'kwana peoples live, as well as isolated indigenous groups, brings a long-term benefit to indigenous communities and organizations in their search for dialogue with the non-indigenous world and respect for their rights.

The Yanomami Indigenous Land Leadership Forum, the result of the construction process of this PGTA, brings a permanent benefit, as it is the largest instance of Yanomami TI representation. This indigenous land is the largest indigenous land in Brazil, with more than 9.6 million hectares, an area that corresponds to more than twice the size of a country like Switzerland.

In turn, the formulation of the PGTAs of the TIs of the Upper and Middle Rio Negro represents a long-term benefit for the local population by legitimizing, organizing and formalizing instruments of internal dialogue between residents and associations and dialogue with the government and partners, in favor of the conservation of their territories and the well-being of their families, based on the local reality and the ways of life of the 23 Rionegrino indigenous peoples.


In this area we offer some PDF files with the main publications generated by the project. Click the filename to start the download.