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Strengthening Territorial and Environmental Management of Indigenous Lands in the Amazon

Environmental Conservation Institute – The Nature Conservancy of Brazil (TNC Brazil)

Project official website
Total project value
R$ 16,308,105.98
Total support amount
US$ 6,618,384.95



Promote sustainable territorial and environmental management in six indigenous lands (TI) in the states of Amapá and Pará, contributing to deforestation reduction in these areas


Approximately 8,800 indigenous people and 60 technicians at public institutions

Territorial scope

Six indigenous lands (TI) partially located in three municipalities in the state of Amapá and five municipalities in the state of Pará



The project “Strengthening of Territorial and Environmental Management of Indigenous Lands in the Amazon” (Igati Project) is inserted in the context of the implementation of the National Policy for Territorial and Environmental Management of Indigenous Lands (PNGATI), instituted by the Brazilian Federal Government through Decree No. 7,747/2012.

PNGATI aims at guaranteeing and promoting the protection, recovery, conservation, and sustainable use of the natural resources of indigenous lands and territories, ensuring the integrity of indigenous heritage and all the necessary conditions for the physical and cultural reproduction of current and future generations of indigenous peoples, respecting their sociocultural autonomy and improving them quality of life. 

The goal of the project was to promote sustainable territorial and environmental management in indigenous lands (TI) in the states of Pará and Amapá, through the development of Territorial and Environmental Management Plans (PGTAs) for these TIs.

PGTA is a dynamic instrument designed to express the protagonism, autonomy and self-determination of indigenous peoples. It is carried out by the indigenous people themselves, with the support of the Brazilian State and civil society, emerging as an instrument of intercultural dialogue and planning for the territorial and environmental management of Brazilian TIs.

The Nature Conservancy of Brazil – TNC Brazil (TNC), the institution responsible for carrying out the project, is a non-governmental organization dedicated to environmental conservation on a global scale. It was founded in 1951, in the United States of America (USA), and currently operates in 72 countries. In Brazil, TNC has been operating since 1988.


The project included four TIs located in the state of Amapá, and two located in the state of Pará. In the state of Amapá, the project benefited TIs Waiãpi, Juminá, Galibi and Uaçá, the last three located in the extreme north of Brazil (Oiapoque). Five indigenous peoples inhabit these four TIs (Wajãpi, Galibi Kali’na, Galibi Marworno, Karipuna and Palikur). In turn, the two other TIs are located in the state of Pará, namely: TIs Trincheira Bacajá and Apyterewa, where the Xikrin and Parakanã peoples live, respectively. These six TIs cover a total area of 3.5 million hectares (ha).

The project was based on four components: i) preparation and updating of PGTAs and financial sustainability plans for the six TIs of the project; ii) implementation of PGTAs in the six TIs, through local projects for the sustainable use of natural resources and territorial control actions; iii) institutional and technical strengthening of indigenous representations and related public institutions; and iv) communication and articulation for the dissemination of information and experiences with the development and implementation of PGTAs.


The project falls under the “sustainable production” (1) and “territorial ordering” (3) components of the Amazon Fund’s Logical Framework. The effects expected by the project in this component were: 1.1 “identification and development of economic activities for sustainable use of the forest, agroforestry and biodiversity;” and 3.2 “land-use planning through Territorial and Environmental Management Plans (PGTAs);” “strengthening of institutions and leaderships for territorial and environmental management” and “implementation of territorial protection structures.”

TIs and nature protected areas (PA) are the least deforested territorial categories in the Amazon. The support for territorial protection to (i) preserve the integrity of these areas, (ii) promote sustainable production and (iii) consolidate the management of these territories directly contributes to the general objective of the Amazon Fund, namely, “reducing deforestation with sustainable development in the Brazilian Amazon.”

Click on the following image to view its objectives tree, that is, how the project's outputs and linked to the expected outcomes and impact.


Date of approval 09.16.2014
Date of the contract 11.18.2014
Date of conclusion 07.31.2020
Estimated completion date 46 months (from the date the contract was signed)


date amount
1º disbursements 12.26.2014 R$1,280,188.79
2º disbursements 09.28.2015 R$3,317,146.92
3º disbursements 01.27.2017 R$5,105,718.55
4º disbursements 02.22.2017 R$342,337.98
5º disbursements 04.26.2018 R$4,367,352.24
6º disbursements 09.25.2018 R$1,243,827.05
7º disbursements 08.26.2020 -R$168,888.92
Total amount disbursed R$15,487,682.61

Total amount disbursed in relation to the Amazon Fund’s support



The PGTAs of TIs Trincheira Bacajá, Apyterewa and Waiãpi were prepared, and the joint PGTA of TIs Galibi, Jumina and Uaçá, located in Oiapoque, was updated. Four economic sustainability plans were also produced, one for each of the PGTAs. The economic sustainability plans present a survey of the costs of the activities prioritized in each of the PGTAs, also containing a diagnosis of the potential funding sources.

Six community projects for the management and sustainable use of natural resources were supported, prioritized by the PGTAs: three in Oiapoque, one in TI Apyterewa, one in TI Trincheira Bacajá, and one in TI Wajãpi. In order to develop these economic activities, 87 indigenous people were trained in the handling, processing and marketing of agroforestry products.

The activities and investments made allowed increasing the installed capacity for the processing and storage of products, their certification (Origens Brasil and Indígenas do Brasil seals) and dissemination, and the improvement in the marketing strategy and in the products’ packaging and production flow.

The links in the productive chains were strengthened, namely: Brazil nuts in TIs Trincheira Bacajá and Apyterewa, handicrafts in the TIs of Oiapoque and TI Apyterewa, and açaí in the TIs of Oiapoque. The support of the project allowed attracting new customers who adopt fair prices for the purchase of Brazil nuts produced in TIs Trincheira Bacajá (of the Xikrin people) and Apyterewa (of the Parakanã people), making it possible to sell these indigenous products for prices far higher than those paid by usual buyers (“middlemen”).

In order to strengthen institutions and leaderships for territorial and environmental management, the project held seven courses that allowed the participants to develop the capacity to reflect on the territorial and environmental management of TIs in the context of PNGATI.

Employees from different agencies participated in the courses, including the National Indian Foundation (Funai), the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio), the Special Secretariat for Indigenous Health (Sesai), the State Secretariats for the Environment of the states of Amapá and Pará, the Institute for the Rural Development of Amapá – Rurap, and the State Secretariat for Economic Development, Mining and Energy of the state of Pará. A total of 101 public servants whose duties are related to the theme of territorial and environmental management have completed the courses.

The project supported the institutional strengthening of five indigenous organizations by offering technical assistance, covering administrative expenses, and purchasing computer equipment for them to carry out the administrative and financial management of the four PGTAs developed. The indigenous organizations that benefited from the project’s actions were: (i) Wajãpi Association of Land, Environment and Culture (Awatac), of TI Waiãpi; (ii) Association of Indigenous Women in Mutirão (Amim), of the TIs of Oiapoque; (iii) Bepotire Xikrin Institute (Ibkrin); (iv) Bebô Xikrin do Bacajá Association (Abex), of TI Trincheira Bacajá; and (v) Tato’a Indigenous Association (AIT), of TI Apyterewa. Additionally, 26 indigenous people were trained in administrative and financial activities.

Four technical centers for the implementation of the PGTAs were installed, containing computers with internet access to store the collected data, which have been used as a point of reference in the TIs for dealing with issues related to PGTAs’ matters. A total of 133 indigenous people received training to work as socioenvironmental agents, both in the management of the PGTAs and in territorial surveillance and environmental monitoring. from which four plans were developed.

These documents guided the work of community surveillance teams composed of indigenous socioenvironmental agents, in partnership with Funai’s inspection teams. To this end, three environmental monitoring networks were structured, covering the TIs of Oiapoque, TI Waiãpi and TI Trincheira Bacajá.

Some deliveries were impacted by the materialization of risks that could not be managed by the project. The intensification of land disputes with the surroundings prevented the execution of some actions that aimed at strengthening the TIs’ territorial protection capacity. Thus, the surveillance expeditions scheduled for TI Apyterewa were cancelled, due to the risk to the safety of the people who would be involved in the activity.

The 29 surveillance and environmental monitoring expeditions carried out by the three regional surveillance networks made it possible to determine the physical limits of the TIs, monitor signs of invasion, and develop new catalogs on the fauna and flora. A total of 1,200 indigenous people from six ethnic groups participated in these expeditions, which covered 2.2 million ha of forest in five TIs.

Four socioeconomic and risk diagnoses were developed for the six TIs covered by the project, but it was not possible to carry out part of the activities planned to sensitize the neighborhood and identify opportunities for implementing territorial and environmental protection actions in the TIs and surrounding areas due to safety issues.

Final Evaluation

Result and Impact indicators

The activities of the project contributed to the results related to the components “sustainable production” (1) and “land-use planning” (3) of the Amazon Fund’s Logical Framework.  

The results of the main indicators used to monitor the expected outcomes are presented below.

Direct effect 1.1 – Identification and development of economic activities for sustainable use of the forest, agroforestry and biodiversity

  • Revenue from the sustainable economic activity supported by the project (outcome indicator)
    Target: undefined | Result achieved: R$ 131,000

The result achieved refers to the year 2018, resulting from the commercialization of Brazil nuts by the indigenous peoples of TIs Trincheira Bacajá and Apyterewa.

  • Number of indigenous people trained in activities related to the handling, processing and marketing of agroforestry products (output indicator)
    Target: 60 | Result achieved: 87

Direct effect 3.2 – Land-use planning through Territorial and Environmental Management Plans (PGTAs); strengthening of institutions and leaderships for territorial and environmental management

  • Number of TIs for which PGTAs were developed or revised (number of plans) (output indicator)
    Target: 6 | Result achieved: 6
  • Area of the TIs with land use defined through PGTAs (output indicator)
    Target: 3.5 million ha | Result achieved: 3.5 million ha

The implementation of PGTAs in their territories is an important achievement for indigenous communities, as it means they have undergone a participatory planning process, which is especially relevant in societies where the collective good has a preponderant role in the organization of social life. PGTAs can be used to subsidy the dialogue with public institutions and the development of fundraising projects.

  • Number of indigenous people trained as socio-environmental agents (output indicator)
    Target: 90 | Result achieved: 133

With the support of the project, indigenous people received training in the management of PGTAs, territorial surveillance and environmental monitoring.

  • Area of the TIs under community surveillance and protection (outcome indicator)
    Target: 2.8 million ha | Result achieved: 2.2 million ha
  • Number of surveillance expeditions carried out (output indicator)
    Target: 48 | Result achieved: 29

One of PNGATI’s main objectives is to guarantee the integrity of indigenous territories. Indigenous people themselves can be on the front line of territorial protection, participating in surveillance expeditions. is the number of expeditions was lower than the expected mainly due to the fact that formal expeditions to TI Apyterewa were not carried out, due to the risk to the physical integrity of the people involved. 

As a general result of the project, approximately 8,800 indigenous people from seven indigenous ethnic groups benefited from the activities developed. 

The table below shows the evolution of deforestation in recent years in the TIs covered by the project. The area deforested annually in the four TIs in the state of Amapá is compatible with the general situation observed in TIs in the Amazon, characterized by low deforestation rates. However, as of 2018, an increase in this rate was observed in TIs Trincheira Bacajá and Apyterewa, located in the state of Pará. This increase became exponential in 2019. In this serious scenario, urgent measures to repress illegal deforestation need to be taken by the competent authorities, as the efforts to promote sustainable productive activities and land use planning supported by the project are insufficient to stop it. 


Area (km²)

Total deforested by 2019 (km²)


























Uaçá I and II


















Trincheira Bacajá



























Source: Inpe/Prodes.

Institutional and administrative aspects

All of the actions planned within the scope of the project were carried out, with the exception of the partial implementation of territorial surveillance activities and promotion of formal neighborhood agreements for the ordering and integrated management of the territory around the TIs. These actions were partially impaired, especially by the intensification of land disputes in the surroundings.

In the difficult context mentioned above, the frequent changes in the command of the federal public administration bodies responsible for indigenous issues also negatively impacted the project. This fact hindered, for example, the functioning of Funai’s Regional Committees, which were created as instances of planning, communication, shared management and social control, where indigenous people and Funai employees can jointly plan the structuring of integrated arrangements between the federal, state and municipal spheres.

Risks and lessons learned

An important lesson to be learned from indigenous projects is that, due to the importance of social participation in the construction and performance of actions and activities carried out by indigenous peoples, including broad discussions within communities and between different communities, a greater availability of time is needed in order for for these decisions to be made , that being the reason why some of the project’s activities started late, which has allowethem to be conducted quite effectively, and the results obtained to really be those desired by the benefited communities.

One success of the project was prioritizing the structuring and coordination of multi-institutional arrangements to support indigenous initiatives using the PGTAs as an anchor, which went on to guide the creation of integrated agendas for the public and private actors who interact with indigenous peoples. An example of this is the arrangement of the PGTAs of TIs Trincheira Bacajá and Apyterewa, in the state of Pará, with the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant (UHE), which now supports them with resources from its Basic Environmental Plan (PBA).

Sustainability of  results

The development of the PGTAs and the other actions implemented by the project are an important legacy, since the indigenous peoples now have strengthened community associations and their own technical staff for addressing the theme of sustainability, including production processes and the marketing of their production.

The indigenous organizations that benefited from the project’s actions became capable, to varying degrees, of implementing community projects and preparing income statements. As a result, they’ve started to count on new financial support from other partners.

The environmental monitoring networks structured with the support of the Amazon Fund have continued to carry out their work after the conclusion of the project, covering five TIs under community surveillance and protection, in an area of approximately 2.2 million ha.


In this area we offer some PDF files with the main publications generated by the project. Click the filename to start the download.